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The general context
Electrification of the chemical production is a major objective to use directly renewable energy in chemical processes, but demonstration of electrochemical processes to proof the industrial and economic feasibility, as well as the development of new advanced electrochemical methodologies is needed to overcome current challenges and create new applications for electrochemistry.
Electrochemical reduction of CO2 is also a key, 2nd generation technology to close the carbon cycle in energy-intensive industries. Also in this case it is necessary to 1) provide a proof of the economic and industrial feasibility of the electrochemical technology to convert carbon dioxide, 2) develop and demonstrate innovative electrochemical technologies to overcome current challenges in electrochemistry, and 3) integrate the electrochemical technologies into industrial operations.
OCEAN project approach
OCEAN project will address these three challenges.
OCEAN project general structure
OCEAN is a four-year project, organized in three consecutive phases. The first phase, which will take 2 years, will be dedicated to the development of new electrochemical technologies (coupled electrosynthesis, acidification using bipolar membranes and novel electrocatalyst development) as well as upscaling and optimization of the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide in an industrial context. Also, new electrocatalysis will be compared with chemocatalysis for the production of high-value products, made out of the reduction products of CO2.
OCEAN project is structured in 9 interlinked workpackages (WP). These workpackages are related with the concept of OCEAN: demonstration (WP1), new electrochemical methodologies (WP2,4) and integration into industrial operations (WP3,5). WP 6 will investigate the environmental impact. WP 7 will look at the economic feasibility, by making a business case and exploitation strategy. WP8 will disseminate the concept and obtained results. Coordination and management will be performed in WP9.
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The OCEAN project aims to develop an integrated process for the production of high-value C2 chemicals from carbon dioxide using electrochemistry. This will be achieved by:
Overall, OCEAN aims at addressing the critical elements that are currently hindering new electrochemical processes by targeting high value products that have the corresponding production margin to introduce this technology on the market, lower the power costs by combining oxidation and reduction, and a trans-disciplinary approach that is needed for the introduction of these advanced technologies.
ERIC a.i.s.b.l. (European Research Institute of Catalysis) is an Association International Sans Bout Lucratif (nonprofit society) with the registered office in Belgium. ERIC a.i.s.b.l. is the Durable Integration Structure (DIS) created from the EU Network of Excellence IDECAT (NMP3-CT-2005-011730). ERIC is currently composed by over 20 partners with large activities on catalysis. ERIC will manage and coordinate the project with proper personnel, while the scientific part related to the development of the electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction to formic acid/formate will be made at the Research Unit located at the University of Messina, Italy (member of ERIC aisbl).
GASKATEL is active in the field of electrochemistry. Besides the sales of standard products GSKL manufactures custom-tailored gas diffusion electrodes for various applications with its manufacturing line that is capable forsmall sample electrodes as well as for quantities up to 100 linear metres. The advantage of the used manufacturing process is the excellent scalability. In OCEAN, GSKL will upscale the GDE’s to 0.2 m2
Removed due to the exit from the project
HYSYTECH A chemical engineering company specialized in the development, manufacturing, certification and operation of first of a kind plants. HST is a core technology developer for reformers, fuel cells and BOP components, service supplier in research, engineering, production and stationary&dynamic application level; supplier of components, chemical reactors, pilot plants and bench test. HST will design manufacture the formate to oxalate reactor, as well as manufacture the electrochemical cell for the Demo Cell.
AVANTIUM has been developing an equipment platform to investigate electrocatalytic reactions. The combination of this platform with the already present high throughput technologies and extensive knowledge on catalysis is very powerful in the development of electrocatalytic processes. In addition, Avantium has recently acquired the assets from Liquid Light, a US based company that developed an advanced technology platform to reduce carbon dioxide. AVT will optimize and engineer the this TRL5 technology for use under industrial conditions, so move it to TRL6. Based on its expertise with Service offerings in catalysis for the chemical industry, as well as its experience in developing its own process to make biobased plastics (the YXY technology, now in a JV with BASF) AVT will integrate the various electrochemical steps into industrial operations towards high value C2 products. AVT will also lead the market and exploitation analysis, based on their experience with biomass conversion, to provide insight into the market and the activities needed for the exploitation of the results, resulting in a business case and exploitation strategy. AVT will be the scientific coordinator. AVT has been involved in the setting-up and management of large public-private research projects (PPS) including B-Basic, CatchBio and CCC (carbohydrate competence center), and has also been leading in setting-up and (scientific) management of several large EU projects (a.o. Biofur, Hugs).
ISTITUTO ITALIANO DI TECNOLOGIA will play a fundamental role in the development and characterization of bipolar membrane based electrodialysis modules. The new multi-stage acidification system will be the ideal platform to use different, tailored catalysts at different stages to maximise yield for both the oxidation and reduction.IIT know-how will be especially used for the electrochemical characterization of the electrodes and catalysts. IIT also holds a variety of techniques for decorating the carbons with active metal species (wet impregnation, CVD, PVD, sputtering, etc.), characterize them (TEM with probes, FESEM, FIB, BET, etc.). IIT will also have a primary role in WP6 for the Life Cycle Analysis and process assessment and quantification of environmental impact.
University of Amsterdam. The group’s new laboratories are located at the Science Park Amsterdam. It has over 400 m2 of state-of-the-art labs for the synthesis, testing and characterization of catalysts and porous materials. The University has a world renowned track record in carbonylation/hydroformulation. The first of the two PhD students in this project will be based in the Reek group. All relevant catalytic carbonylation reactors at laboratory scale and all required analytical equipment (NMR, LC, GC, GCMS, etc.) is available. The 2nd PhD student will work on polymerization using oxalic acid and other C2 di-acids / di-alcohols produced with the OCEAN technology
RWE’s Coal Innovation Centre at Niederaussem as testing site of the OCEAN demonstrator is widely known in research and engineering for testing of new technologies under real industrial boundary conditions to achieve commercial status and to prepare large-scale implementation. Several thousand visitors per year from the public, press and politics as well as scientists from all over the world are visiting the site to inform oneself about innovations in the energy sector. RWE will provide data for the LCA based on the testing and maintenance of the OCEAN demonstrator under real industrial boundary conditions and the CO2 post-combustion capture technology. RWE will support the market analysis by providing data from the electricity market, CCUS and its experience on chemical products from coal gasification (Coal to Liquid). Using its experience on the economics of energy storage technologies RWE will challenge the use of excess power from fluctuating renewables as only energy source for the CCU application and source of earnings from load leveling to develop a robust business case for the OCEAN technology. As a proper management of IP enhances the chances of an effective exploitation of the research results, RWE will bring in its experience on IPR (in-house department on IPR at RWE) as a leading patent holder in the European energy sector. Regulatory hurdles and barriers for the market entrance for the exploitation will be identified.
Partner 1 ERIC Aisbl:
Poster, “Hydrogenation of Dimethyl Oxalate to Ethylene Glycol by Cu/SiO2 catalysts, role of tin as promoter”, Europacat, Aachen, Germany 18-23 August 2019, presented by S. Perathoner
Professor Gabriele Centi gave a speech on line at the European Parliament at the STOA workshop "Decarbonising European industry: hydrogen and other solutions" on 01/03/21
Professor Gabriele Centi gave a speech on line "Opportunities and needs for catalytic to close the carbon cycle and go beyond the use of fossil fuels" on 03/03/2021, RIPP, SINOPEC (Beijing, P.R. China). SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP), founded in 1956, is a comprehensive research and development organization specialized in petroleum refining and petrochemical engineering subordinated to SINOPEC Corporation. RIPP consists of 17 research departments nurturing a high qualified research team with prominent technological advantage. 1246 staff are sharing the same future with RIPP. Among 959 technicians，there 6 Members of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering,114 senior engineers with professorship, 468 senior engineers and technicians，including 237 with PhD degree and 272 with Master's degree. SINOPEC is one of the largest world companies in petroleum refining & petrochemical integration
NINE2021 the 4th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NANOTECHNOLOGY BASED INNOVATIVE APPLICATIONS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT (https://www.aidic.it/nine2021/) 28-31/03/2021 (on line). Contribution given by:
1) Rosalba Passalacqua: ID 18: Improved Nanocomposite Photoanodes by Controlled Deposition of g-C3N4 on Titania Nanotube Ordered Films
Rosalba Passalacqua*, Salvatore Abate, Siglinda Perathoner, Gabriele Centi
2) Federica De Luca: ID 20: g-C3N4 Decorated TiO2 Nanotube Ordered Thin Films as Cathodic Electrodes for the Selective Reduction of Oxalic Acid
Federica De Luca, Rosalba Passalacqua*, Francesco P. Abramo, Siglinda Perathoner, Gabriele Centi, Salvatore Abate*
Partner 4 HYSITECH:
Presentation during the Summer school “cooling the earth”,29/09-01/10 2020 (on line) Sorani Montenegro (https://www.co2olingearth.eu/)
Partner 5 AVANTIUM:
Scientific publication, review /october 2019 /European Polymer Journal /Maria A. Murcia (University of Amsterdam), Robert-Jan van Putten (Avantium), Gert-Jan Gruter (Avantium, University of Amsterdam).
Partner 6 POLITO:
Presentation during the 2nd World Congress & Expo on Chemical Engineering & Catalysis. Talk: “Electrocatalytic vs. Thermocatalytic CO2 reduction towards liquid fuels”. 1-2 July 2019, Rome, Italy. by Simelys Hernandez
Presentation during the Nanoinnovation 2020 Conference & Exhibition. Talk: “Low-cost nanocatalysts for the electrochemical CO2 reduction to valuable products”. 15-18 September 2020, Rome, Italy. By: Simelys Hernandez.
Presentation at the DENSYS (Master Erasmus Mundus Decentralised Smart Energy Systems) RESEARCH FORUM DEDICATED TO ACTIVITIES. Talk: “Photo/electro catalytic cells for H2 production and CO2 valorization”. 15 October 2020. Virtual Meeting in Zoom Platform. By: Simelys Hernandez.
Presentation at the “Co2oling the earth” IIo Ed. Summer school. Talk: CO2 capture and valorisation by (photo)electr
Poster, 8-12 September 2019, Giornate dell’Elettrochimica Italiana Padova (IT), Simelys Pris Hernandez Ribullenocatalytic technologies at TRL5/6 demonstration scale. 29 September – 01 October 2020. Virtual Meeting in Zoom platform. By: Simelys Hernandez.
Partner 8 UvA:
16/10/2019 Eemsdeltevisie - Contest for future of chemical industry at Delfzijl port– Delfzijl, The Netherlands – 250 participants from industry, Dutch minister of economics and climate; all present during presentation – presented by Maria Alejandra Murcia and Eric Schuler
7/1/2020 UKCC – Annual conference of UK catalysis hub – Loughborough, United Kingdom – 200 participants form academia and industry mainly from Europe and south America; 50 in the given presentation – 30 minute oral presentation by Eric Schuler
5/3/2020 – NCCC – Annual conference of the dutch catalytic society – Noorderwijkshout, The Netherlands – 1500 participants from industry and academia around the glove; 120 participants in presentation – 30 minute oral presentation by Eric Schuler
15/6/2020 – ACS Green Chemistry and Engineering conference – Seattle, USA – 6800 participants from industry and academia ; 258 participants during presentation - 20 minute oral presentation by Eric Schuler
16/6/2020 - ACS Green Chemistry and Engineering conference – Seattle, USA – 6800 participants from industry and academia ; 452 participants during panel discussion – 1.5h Panel discussion on future of CO2 chemistry with 5 participants form industry (Joseph Sabol, consultant; Sahag Voskian, CTO at Verdox), academia (Anna Klinkova, professor at University of Waterloo; Eric Schuler; representing UvA and OCEAN; Yuanting Qiao; Queens university Belfast ) and governmental institutes (Elisabeth Nesbit; US international trade commission)
Scientific publication/june 2020/Applied Polymer Materials journal- American Chemical Society/Maria A. Murcia (University of Amsterdam), Robert-Jan van Putten (Avantium), Gert-Jan Gruter (Avantium, University of Amsterdam).
Partner 9 RWE GENERATION:
15.05.19, Presentation, Senior Technical College Jülich, Jülich
17.05.19, Presentation, Energy Agency North-Rhine-Westphalia, Niederaussem
24.05.19, Presentation, newspaper Kölner Stadtanzeiger Niederaussem
18.06.19, Presentation, University Bochum, Niederaussem
27.06.19, Presentation, NEDO, Niederaussem
10.09.19, Presentation, Neighboring Forum, Niederaussem
11.10.19, Presentation, JCOAL, Niederaussem
05.11.19, Presentation, University Bochum, Niederaussem
07.12.19, Presentation, University Rhein-Sieg, RheinabachSiegen
28.01.2020, Presentation EURACOAL, Brussels
03.02.2020, Presentation, Ministry of Economics North-Rhine -Westphalia, Niederaussem
11.02.2020, Presentation, Japan Electric Power, “Carbon Capture & Usage (CCU) at RWE”, Niederaussem
26.03.2020, Presentation, District Government Cologne, at Niederaussem
26.02.2020,Presentation,Lehrstuhls für Energiewirtschaft University Duisburg-Essen, Niederaussem
02.03.2020, Presentation, Mitsubishi Research Institute, online
27.03.2020, team: 01.2020 (RWE company magazine), “Allrounder CO2”, p 26
05.2020, Report Mitsubishi research Institute, p 15
Project website operative
Final training activities
Public opening of demo cell
PLGA Barrier Materials from CO2.The influence of Lactide Co-monomer on Glycolic Acid Polyesters.Authors:Maria A. Murcia Valderrama, Robert-Jan van Putten, Gert-Jan M. Gruter.Published on "ACS Applied Polymer Materials" Issue 6-2020
Die Forschungsprojekte zu CCU und Sektorkopplung im Innovationszentrum Kohle der RWE Power. Authors:Peter Moser, Sandra Schmidt, Knut Stahl, Georg Wiechers. Published on " VGB PowerTech" Issue 1/2, 2019
Eric Schuler, Pavel A Ermolich, N Raveendran Shiju, Gert-Jan M Gruter (Avantium Chem.), Monomers from CO2 : Superbases as Catalysts for Formate-to-Oxalate Coupling, ChemSusChem 2021 doi: 10.1002/cssc.202002725.
Maria A. Murcia Valderrama, Robert-Jan van Putten, and Gert-Jan M. Gruter (Avantium Chem.), The potential of oxalic – and glycolic acid based polyesters (review). Towards CO2 as a feedstock (Carbon Capture and Utilization – CCU), European Polymer Journal 2019, 119, 445-468.
Gabriele Centi, Gaetano Iaquaniello and Siglinda Perathoner (ERIC aisbl), Chemical engineering role in the use of renewable energy and alternative carbon sources in chemical production, BMC Chemical Engineering 2019, 1: 5. doi: 9) 1:5 doi: 10.1186/s42480-019-0006-8
Review papers citing the OCEAN project
Farihahusnah Hussin and Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua, Recent advances in low-temperature electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide, Reviews in Chemical Engineering 2021, jsut accepted. doi: 10.1515/revce-2019-0010
Gareth Williams (Johnson Matthey), 9th Carbon Dioxide Utilisation Summit: Latest advances in routes to renewable fuels and chemicals, reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, Johnson Matthey Technol. Rev., 2018, 62, (4), 389. doi:10.1595/205651318x15305286362530
The first workshop of the project “Perspectives on Carbon dioxide capture and utilization” was organized by AVANTIUM on 23 April 2018 (https://www.avantium.com/ocean/).The workshop was hosted by Avantium and University of Amsterdam premises. The workshop was organized within the WP8 of OCEAN envisioning the dissemination of the project and the research activities on CO2 conversion that are taking place within OCEAN to the scientific community. The main aim was to gather in a single symposium different points of view and opinions – Perspectives – about carbon dioxide capture (CCC) and carbon dioxide utilization (CCU).
-A second workshop will be organized at the end (at M54) to present the project outcomes and the future steps towards the exploitation of the results. The dissemination event will be held at EU. During the final conference, similar projects will also be discussed as part of the D&C strategy.
Promoting project results to industry and society
- Prof Siglinda Perathoner and Prof. Gabriele Centi, were involved in the organization of the Conference “Chemistry meets Industry and Society (CIS 2019)”, held in Salerno, Italy from 28 to 30 August 2019. (http://cis2019.com/).CIS 2019 intended to be an innovative international congress, different from traditional scientific congresses, also aimed at bridging the gap between academic scientific research and the needs of industry and society. Prof. Centi was one of the promoters of the conference, organized then by the Italian Chemical Society, and prof. Perathoner of the chairs of the WS5 - Sustainability of products.
CIS 2019 aimed to demonstrate the strategic role of Chemistry for progress and innovation, with particular attention to sectors of fundamental importance such as Energy, Health, Sustainability, Safety in everyday life. To project topic of OCEAN, electrochemistry, was one of the focal points of CIS 2019.
- ERIC was one of the main organizer of the Training “Summer School” from July, 22 to 27, 2019 in Sarteano (Siena) Italy. The title of the School was “Making Business with Green Chemistry and Sustainable Energy” (http://www.eric-aisbl.eu/sarteano/).The objective of this Summer School was from one side to highlight research topics in the areas of green chemistry and engineering, renewable energy and storage advanced materials and from another one to conjugate them into an economic contest and show how these potentially new technologies may become a source of business and may create jobs. The organizers invited an international team of scientists, professional engineers and managers to present in a five days program the emerging technologies, business cores, creation of start-up companies and how to write research proposal and raise funds. The lecture and presentation given at the school were the basis to prepare the book “Catalysis, Green Chemistry & Sustainable Energy” published by Elsevier as Volume 179 of the well-recognize worldwide Studies in Catalysis and Surface Science series.
Presentations (related to aspects of OCEAN project)
Klaas Jan Schouten (Avantium, Netherlands), CO2 electrolysis as key technology for the production of high value chemicals, 9th Carbon Dioxide Utilisation Summit 18-19 October 2017, Reykjavik, Iceland
Web pages of companies citing the project:
Avantium, RWE AG, Hysitech
EU studies citing the OCEAN project results:
Klaus H. Sommer, Study and portfolio review of the projects on industrial symbiosis in DG Research and Innovation: Findings and recommendations. Publications Office of the European Union, 2020, ISBN 978-92-76-11247-1 doi:10.2777/381211
SusChem, Strategic Innovation and Research Agenda - Innovation Priorities for EU and Global Challenges, November 2019
EU Green Week Joint dissemination activity (04/06/2021): final presentation shared during the workshop
EU PROJECT OFFICER:
Project Officer: Dr. Lucia Macia FERNANDEZ
Research Programme OfficerEuropean Commission
DG Research & Innovation
Directorate D – Industrial Technologies
Unit D2 "Advanced Manufacturing Systems and Biotechnologies"
Professor Siglinda Perathoner
Dept. ChiBioFarAm, Sect. Industrial Chemistry V.le F. Stagno D'Alcontres 31 98166 Messina – Italy
tel.: +39 090 6765609
Coordinator Management Team:
Dr. Serena Orsi
Dr. Stefano Vannuzzi